Tag Archives: positive

How to Deal with Exam Anxiety

Exam anxiety is a real and legitimate problem that can affect a person’s academic performance. There are however certain skills you can learn to assist with managing exam anxiety.

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Causes:

There are numerous causes for exam anxiety:

  • Poor study skills – Some students do not know how to effectively study for an exam, as a result they feel under prepared and so experience anxiety. Whilst others think they know how to study but are in fact using inadequate methods.
  • Negative self-talk – These are often students who have done badly in previous exams or who dislike sitting for exams and so convince themselves that they will do poorly. The self-doubt makes it difficult for them to concentrate before and even during the exam.
  • The perfectionist – For some students anything less than a distinction is deemed a failure, thus placing exaggerated and unnecessary pressure on themselves.

Symptoms:

Physical symptoms include –

  • tense muscles
  • sweating
  • rapid heart rate
  • nausea
  • rapid or shallow breathing
  • feeling faint

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Cognitive symptoms include:

  • inability to remember simple things
  • illogical thinking
  • mental blocks

In order to deal with exam anxiety one needs to address both the physical and cognitive aspects of the anxiety. Certain techniques are specifically recommended for the relief of exam anxiety, with some requiring  practice and persistence.

Positive Self-Talk

Our thoughts have the ability to create positive or negative feelings about ourselves and situations. Anxiety is brought on by a person’s thoughts or expectations of how an event or experience is likely to turn out. A solution for dealing with this form of doubt is referred to as cognitive restructuring – what this process does is get the individual to examine their irrational, negative self-talk and replace it with positive self-talk.

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If you repeatedly tell yourself that you are not going to do well in an exam, your emotions will mirror this message resulting in feelings of anxiety because the message you are repeating to yourself is negative and self-defeating.

Of course just telling yourself that you are ready for an exam, but you haven’t opened a book, is not going to work. You need to have put the effort and time in so as to reinforce your positive self-talk; so that the message is true and you can believe in it.

Be Smart 

1. Be realistic about the amount of time you have.

It is easy to misjudge how much time you actually have available for studying or completing assignments. One way of finding out where you are wasting time or could be using your time more productively is by creating a master schedule:

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You literally map out every hour of every day (weekends included) and create a “big picture” of how you spend your time. You will then be able to see what time you have available for studying / working on assignments, where you are maybe wasting time and, where you could perhaps get more time from during particularly busy periods.

2. Pay attention in lectures

You don’t realise it but your lecturers drop hints and clues throughout their lectures about what is important and may be coming up in the next exam or assignment – if you pay close enough attention you will notice them:

  • writing notes / keywords on the whiteboard
  • repeating something over and over in a lesson, or over a period of time
  • literally saying the words: “This is important”
  • their tone of voice or gestures when address a particular concept or topic
  • assigning specific readings or textbook chapters

3. Take notes during lectures…and use them

Taking notes during lectures means you are actively engaging and thinking about what is being presented. By re-writing the notes after the class you will not only be reinforcing the information but you will also be able to organise it in an understandable manner; highlighting keywords or concepts that the lecturer paid special attention to.

4. Really study

Studying is not about reading your textbook and notes over and over again in the hopes that the information will magically transport itself to your memory, so that you can regurgitate it into your answer book during the exam.

Studying means knowing and understanding concepts and theories and how they relate and interact. At college level you will very seldom (if ever) be expected to merely memorise and regurgitate information; instead you are required to analyse, apply and organise the information you have learned into a response that adequately addresses the question that is asked.

Relaxation Techniques

The use of relaxation techniques is often recommended for the treatment of anxiety. There are a variety of techniques that can be used, we will be looking at two particular exercises:

  • Deep breathing
  • Progressive Muscle Relaxation

Deep breathing:

When you are relaxed you tend to take longer and deeper breaths versus when you are anxious your breathing becomes shallow and rapid. Deep breathing exercises reverses this, sending a message to your brain telling it to calm the body.

Deep breathing is a technique which becomes more effective with practice as your body will learn to read the signs that it needs to relax and calm down.

Technique:

  • You can be sitting or standing, just make sure you are relaxed (no tensed muscles) before you begin.
  • Make sure your hands are relaxed, your knees are soft, and your shoulders and jaw are relaxed.
  • Breathe in slowly through your nose – counting in your head for five beats as you breathe in, keep your shoulders down and allow your stomach to expand as you breathe in.
  • Hold your breath for 5 – 10 beats – you shouldn’t feel uncomfortable but you should be holding your breath for a little longer than you normally would.
  • Breathe out slowly and smoothly for 5 – 10 beats.
  • Repeat until you feel calm.

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Progressive Muscle Relaxation:

When a person is stressed or anxious they tend to tense their muscles resulting in feelings of stiffness and sometimes even pain in the back, shoulders and / or neck. Progressive muscle relaxation teaches you how to become aware of where you store your tension and to release it.

Technique:

  • Find a quiet, private room.
  • Lie down on your back, making sure you are comfortable. You may want to put a pillow behind your head. Take your shoes off and make sure you are wearing comfortable, loose fitting clothes.
  • You are now going to intentionally tense each of your muscle groups, and then relax them, starting with your feet and working your way up the body.

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  • Tense the muscles in your toes – curl them into your foot – take note of how this feels – hold the position for 5 seconds.
  • Relax your toes – notice how they feel different in the relaxed state.
  • Tense the muscles in your calves – hold it for 5 seconds – notice the feeling of tension in your leg.
  • Relax your calves – notice how the feeling of relaxation differs
  • Tense your knees – pull the knee caps upwards – hold the pose for 5 seconds – notice the feeling of tension in your knees.
  • Relax the knees – notice the feeling of relaxation.

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  • Repeat the pattern of tensing and releasing working upwards through your body: thighs, buttocks, pelvic floor, stomach, fingers, hands, forearms, upper arms, shoulders, neck, face.
  • No other muscle group should be tensed when focusing on a particular area.
  • Make sure that the room you are in is quiet and comfortable, so that you can concentrate on the feeling of tension and relaxation without any disturbances.
  • You may feel sleepy after (or you may even fall asleep during) this exercise.

Disclaimer:

The breathing and relaxation techniques provided in this post are for informational purposes only. Please consult your family doctor before beginning any new exercise or relaxation programme. This is particularly important if you have any pre-existing health conditions.


References:

Therapist Aid.com (n.d.). Relaxation Techniques. Retrieved from: http://www.therapistaid.com/therapy-worksheet/relaxation-techniques/anxiety/adults. [Accessed: 19 April 2016].

University of Alabama. (n.d.). Dealing with Test Anxiety. Retrieved from: http://www.ctl.ua.edu/CTLStudyAids/StudySkillsFlyers/TestPreparation/testanxiety.htm. [Accessed: 09 May 2016].

Watson, J. (2015). Avoiding Test Anxiety – Tip Sheet. Retrieved from: https://www.butte.edu/departments/cas/tipsheets/studystrategies/test_anxiety.html. [Accessed: 09 May 2016].

Weimer, M. (2016). Test Anxiety: Causes and Remedies. Retrieved from: http://www.facultyfocus.com/articles/teaching-professor-blog/test-anxiety-causes-and-remedies/ . [Accessed: 09 May 2016].

 

E-mailing & E-mail Etiquette

BMH Durban lecturer, Julia Sutherland, provides  excellent advice and pointers on writing professional e-mails and e-mail etiquette.

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E-mail is an important communication tool within both the personal and professional context (that includes your college career) :

  • It is immediate.
  • Messages can be saved for later review.
  • Messages can be forwarded on, in their original form, to other recipients.
  • It is a means of sharing documentation easily and collaborating on projects without having to meet face-to-face.
  • It is flexible in that you can send both formal and informal messages.

There are many disadvantages to e-mail communication too though:

  • It is easy to misunderstand someone without the usual non-verbal cues we get from face-to-face communication.
  • E-mails are often less formal than other forms of communication, thus an e-mail sender is more likely to write something that they would not ordinarily say in a face-to-face conversation and which may cause offense.
  • It’s also easy to click the “send” button too early or to send a message to the wrong recipient.

Drafting an E-mail

Whatever the topic, e-mails require careful consideration when being drafted which is why you need to ensure that you follow the Five C’s:

  • Be clear
  • Be courteous
  • Be correct
  • Be concise
  • Be complete 

Unlike a formal business letter, you do not need to format an e-mail with an address etc. There are however certain structural rules you need to keep in mind:

  • Add the e-mail address last.
  • Always include a subject line but keep it short and informative 
  • Open with a simple but appropriate greeting
  • Keep the body of the e-mail short and use paragraphs to divide up the information – the same as you would do in an essay: one paragraph for one topic.
  • Your tone should be friendly, positive and professional. Remember: e-mails can be forwarded and work inboxes are not private.
  • Invite a brief response, if necessary.
  • Include an attachment, if necessary, but never send an attachment on its own without any subject line or communication explaining its context.
  • End with a complimentary close.
  • PAUSE BEFORE SENDINGproof read (spelling, grammar, punctuation, details such as times, dates etc.) and make sure you have included everything that is necessary.

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E-mail Etiquette

  • Only use industry jargon if the other person is familiar with the jargon.
  • Do not, under any circumstances, use SMS or text speak (e.g. “u” instead of “you”)
  • Get to the point quickly, don’t be too conversational.
  • Do not use ALL CAPS – this means you are shouting.
  • Always address someone specific – don’t just launch into the body of the e-mail without a proper greeting / introduction.
  • Do not demand, always ask (e.g. “Please may I have a copy…” vs. “I want a copy…”)
  • “Please” and “Thank You” are magical words.
  • Avoid using exclamation marks!!!!!!
  • Use a professional e-mail address (e.g. joe.s@gmail.com vs. joe-the-man@gmail.com)
  • Be cautious with humour.
  • Think before hitting: “reply to all” and / or “cc” – use these sparingly.
  • Do not use causal salutations (e.g. Dear Jane vs. Hey Jane)
  • Respond to incoming e-mails as soon as possible.
  • Do not forget to proof read.

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Using the correct e-mail etiquette will result in:

  • The reader receiving all the information they need, enabling them to respond or proceed accordingly.
  • The reader not being irritated and / or offended by your e-mail as this may affect their actions / response.
  • The reader taking you seriously.

 


References:

Shober, D. (2013). Essential Business Communication – Communicating with a vision (2nd ed.). Pretoria: Van Schaik Publishers.

Smith, J. & Giang, V. (2014, September 3). 11 Email Etiquette Rules Every Professional Should Know. Retrieved from: http://www.businessinsider.com/email-etiquette-rules-everyone-should-know-2014-9

 

 

 

 

 

 

FOCUS ON: ADD / ADHD – The Effects of Adult ADD / ADHD

Undiagnosed or untreated ADD/ADHD can result in a person experiencing problems in basically every area of their life. 

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The range of effects ADD/ADHD has can result in feelings of embarrassment, frustration, disappointment, hopelessness and lack of confidence. What is important to remember when receiving a diagnosis of ADD/ADHD is that the problems and difficulties you have been experiencing are as a result of the symptoms of ADD/ADHD and not because of a personal weakness or character flaw.

The Negative Side of Adult ADD/ADHD

Mental & Physical Health

The symptoms of ADD/ADHD can contribute to a variety of health problems including:

  • compulsive eating
  • substance abuse or addiction
  • anxiety
  • chronic stress & tension
  • low self-esteem
  • depression
  • mood swings

In addition to this, those with ADD/ADHD are more likely to forget or ignore important medical check-ups and doctors appointments, fail to read and follow medical instructions, and possibly forget to take medications.

Work & Finances

Adults with untreated ADD/ADHD are more likely to change jobs more frequently and under-perform, resulting in low self-esteem and lack of confidence. Problems adults with ADD/ADHD experience in the work (or college) environment include:

  • trouble keeping a job or staying in college
  • difficulty with following company or college rules
  • difficulty meeting deadlines
  • difficulty sticking to a 9 – 5 routine or college schedule

In addition to this many adults with ADD/ADHD find it difficult managing their own finances resulting in bills not being paid or getting lost, late fees and debt due to impulsive spending.

Relationships

Adults with undiagnosed or untreated ADD/ADHD are at a higher risk for:

  • marital / relationship problems
  • multiple marriages due to divorce
  • higher incidences of separation and divorce

The symptoms of ADD/ADHD can put an enormous amount of strain on work, family and love relationships. The person with ADD/ADHD is often frustrated by their inability to “get organised” or “listen” or “focus”; and those close to them become increasingly resentful because of their perceived lack of “responsibility” and “attention”.

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Having ADD/ADHD does not mean you cannot pursue your dreams or lead a “normal” life; nor is it an indicator of a person’s intelligence or capabilities. What ADD/ADHD does mean is that there may be certain things that are more challenging for you than for others, this doesn’t mean you can’t find ways around these challenges and succeed.

The key to coping with a diagnosis of ADD/ADHD is finding what your strengths are and capitalising on them. You may be disorganised and impulsive but you may also be highly creative, passionate and able to see things from a totally different perspective to others. The aim is to identify what you are good at and work around that. 

The Positive Side of Adult ADD/ADHD

High Energy

A different way to view hyperactivity is “high energy”. If you’re following a career where energy and stamina are required, you can use your “high energy” to your advantage. The challenge however is learning to harness the energy, instead of allowing it to disrupt your focus.

The Devil’s in the Detail

People with ADD/ADHD are not commonly known for their attention to detail; but what most people forget is that a person with ADD/ADHD often can and will become very focussed on tasks or activities they do enjoy, and as a result may pick on details others will miss.

Live in the Now

As with hyperactivity, implusivity too has a positive side to it – being impulsive means you are the type of person who “lives in the now” and doesn’t dwell too far into the future.

Although impulsive behaviour can be risky and can result in unnecessary problems and consequences, if you can learn to manage and direct your impulses the benefits could outweigh the risks.

In Part 3 of Focus On: ADD/ADHD we will be looking at Ways of Managing Adult ADD/ADHD

 

*The information contained in this post is for informative purposes only and is not a substitute for professional diagnosis and treatment. 


References:

Metcalf, E. (2013). The Positive Side of Adult ADHD. Retrieved from: http://www.webmd.com/add-adhd/features/positives?page=2 [Accessed on: 25 February 2015].

Segal, R. & Smith, M. (2014). Adult ADD/ADHD: Signs, Symptoms, Effects and Treatment. Retrieved from: http://www.helpguide.org/articles/add-adhd/adult-adhd-attention-deficit-disorder.htm [Accessed on: 25 February 2015].